After applying to health institutions with symptoms of insulin resistance, physicians first perform a medical history and physical examination of the person. So, how to understand insulin resistance? What should be done to break insulin resistance?
Fasting blood glucose and insulin tests are decisive for the diagnosis of insulin resistance. When necessary, an evaluation can be made by looking at the change in blood sugar and insulin values with the “sugar loading test”. HOMA criteria used to calculate insulin resistance; It is the result of a mathematical formula calculated from blood sugar and insulin values. In addition, some data such as blood lipids, liver enzymes can be helpful for diagnosis.
After applying to health institutions with symptoms of insulin resistance, physicians first perform a medical history and physical examination of the person. Following these applications, with the help of various tests requested by the physician, the parameters that can be evaluated within the scope of insulin resistance test and that may indicate insulin resistance in the person are examined:
FASTING PLASMA GLUCOSE TEST
In this test, in which the sugar level in the bloodstream is determined following a fasting period of at least 8 hours, a glucose level below 100 milligrams per deciliter is considered normal. Values between 100 and 125 milligrams may indicate the presence of prediabetes. Values of 126 milligrams per deciliter and above have diagnostic significance for diabetes.
After the test result, which is determined to be high, the examination can be repeated in the following days to confirm this test. High blood sugar level as a result of both tests has diagnostic value for prediabetes and diabetes.
ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST (OGTT)
The oral glucose tolerance test is performed 2 hours after the administration of a sugar-containing solution to the person following the test after fasting. It is considered normal for the person to have a blood sugar level below 140 milligrams per deciliter in the blood analyzes performed at the end of the 2-hour period following the ingestion of the solution.
Detection of the OGTT test result between 140-199 milligrams per deciliter may indicate the development of prediabetes. Values of 200 milligrams and above are an important finding for the presence of diabetes in the person.
The HbA1c test is used to illuminate the average value of the person’s blood sugar level in the last 2-3 months. This value is calculated as a percentage. As a result of the test, it is considered normal if the a1c value of the person is determined below 5.7%.
People with a value between 5.7 and 6.4 are considered prediabetic, while people with an HbA1c value of 6.5 and above may have diabetes.
WHAT ARE INSULIN RESISTANCE TREATMENT METHODS?
Various lifestyle changes form the basis of insulin resistance treatment. Regulating the foods consumed with meals, adjusting the amount of calories taken, and staying away from high glycemic index foods are the most important steps of insulin resistance treatment planning.
Patients with insulin resistance; It is necessary to prefer foods with a low glycemic index, which do not increase blood sugar, and rich in fiber (fiber) and other nutrients. Along with all vegetables except potatoes, carrots and corn: Legumes such as kidney beans, chickpeas, dry beans, lentils, bran, brown bread, fruits such as apples and oranges should be included in the diet menu.
Fruits are nutrients that contribute to both insulin resistance and other normal functions of the body with the fiber, vitamins and minerals in their content. Apple, banana, pear, fig and peach are among the fruits recommended to be consumed by people with insulin resistance. Consumption of fruit juices instead of fruits itself is not recommended due to the high level of sugar in these products.
Vegetables are plant foods that are both low in calories and rich in fiber. They can have a positive effect on the control of blood sugar levels in patients with insulin resistance. Green leafy vegetables such as tomatoes, asparagus, green beans, carrots, spinach and cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli are among the vegetables recommended to be consumed by patients within the scope of insulin resistance diet.
Fibers in foods are divided into two groups as soluble and insoluble fibers. Insoluble fibers help regulate stool consistency and facilitate bowel movements. Soluble fibers can contribute with their properties such as cholesterol control and appetite reduction.
Trans fatty acid can increase insulin resistance, fueling the formation of diabetes as a secret weapon. In order to break insulin resistance, it is recommended that you abandon the method of cooking by frying, stay away from butter rich in trans fats, purify your cabinet from all delicatessen products that we describe as processed meats, and not consume packaged products, including ready-made cakes.
Do not forget that the diet that shields insulin resistance is based on consuming foods of animal and vegetable origin containing omega 3 fatty acids. Add flaxseed to your salads or yogurt, consume walnuts in between meals, and eat fatty fish rich in omega 3, including salmon, at least three times a week. If you cannot eat these foods, you can use fish oil.
Do not forget to practice walking at a regular pace for at least 30 minutes every day and at least 5 days a week. Thus, while exercising, your muscles will easily use the sugar in the environment and calorie burning will begin without the need for insulin. If you continue to exercise regularly, fat-burning enzymes will come into play, and you will be able to easily get rid of stored fat.
With regular exercise, positive developments against diabetes such as lowering blood sugar, accelerating fat burning and weight loss can be achieved. These developments also help the body to be more sensitive to insulin. Exercises such as gardening, walking, running, swimming and dancing are examples of physical activities recommended for people with insulin resistance.
Obese or overweight individuals are at risk for both diabetes and other health conditions associated with this condition. Even by losing just a few pounds, an important step is taken against these problems. Up to 60% of insulin resistance can be corrected with only exercise and a healthy diet. There are also some points to be considered while playing sports. Adequate heart rate increase should be achieved, one should not take too many breaks between movements and cool the body, and one should do sports suitable for the individual. Losing 7% of a person’s body weight together with personally appropriate physical activity and diet can reduce the development of Type 2 diabetes by 58%.
A regular night’s sleep is an essential part of life that contributes to many of the body’s functions. Insomnia and other sleep problems are dangerous conditions for health, and care should be taken as they may pave the way for problems such as infectious diseases, heart diseases and Type 2 diabetes.
Another effective factor in regulating the body’s blood sugar level is the person’s stress level. When the body goes into fight-or-flight mode, the production of the stress hormones cortisol and glucagon is triggered. These hormones enable the storage sugar to be converted into glucose and given to the bloodstream for the body to use when necessary. As a result of this effect, the person’s blood sugar remains at a high level, and under the influence of these hormones, there is a development of resistance against the hormone insulin. Through meditation, breathing exercises, a regular night’s sleep and physical activity, stress levels can be reduced and the body can be more sensitive to insulin.
Tea sugar, jam, marmalade, molasses, honey, sweets, cookies, cakes, pastries, biscuits, chocolate, wafers, white bread, corn and corn bread, corn flakes, rice, vermicelli, noodles, pasta, bananas, figs, grapes, Except for melon, watermelon, apricot, dried fruits, ready-made fruit juices and acidic soft drinks should be consumed as little as possible.
In Type 2 diabetes, some insulin is produced by the body, but because it is not enough to meet the need, people with Type 2 diabetes use oral hypoglycemic drugs to lower their blood sugar. Some may even need insulin injections. Metformin is the leading agent used in the treatment of insulin resistance. This drug, which is a first-line treatment method, should be used with caution in people with kidney disease. The important point here is to be conscious that you are getting enough help appropriate for your situation and that you are making the necessary adjustments in your life. Applications such as all medical drugs and lifestyle changes should be done within the knowledge and recommendation of physicians.
Bariatric surgery may come to the fore in people who do not respond to insulin resistance treatment with lifestyle changes, medical treatment and other methods. Especially in obese people, starting to lose excess fat tissue with surgeries such as stomach reduction can be an important step in breaking insulin resistance.